It is now assumed that many animals, from chimpanzees to dogs, have variable behavior depending on where they are and according to their environment. For each of these species, more and more, scientists produce different cultures, societies, individuals according to places and therefore according to space. However, these behavioral differences are still very small in thinking over time, because since Antiquity we have neglected, minimized or, often, denied historical differences, more chooses to attribute to animals traits that are always the same, and rejects the idea that they too have their own. stories.
This book suggests thinking about the behavior of animals in space and time. Concrete examples show that we can observe behavioral differences in these two dimensions at the same time, thus reconsidered and linked. The multiplicity of attitudes observed creates individualities, societies, particular cultures, more or less stable in space and time. To properly study animals, we must spatialize them but also narrate them. For each species, it is now necessary to build a history and a geography of its behaviors, to trace and show the existence of periods, centers, parallel and successive cultures of behavior, independent or linked to those human situation, themselves both variables in time and space.
This book, to which veterinarians, ethologists, ecologists, literary scholars, philologists and historians have contributed, is intended for everyone and for a public passionate about animals.
Contributions from: Éric Baratay, Nicolas Baron, Thierry Bedossa, Clotilde Boitard, Dalila Bovet, Thomas Brignon, Pascal Carlier, Raphaël Chalmeau, Christophe Chandezon, Fabienne Delfour, Sarah Jeannin, Michel Kreutzer, Gérard Leboucher, Pascaline Le Gouar, Ne Rémi Luglia Ménard, Philippe Monbrun, Élisa Neves, Marie Pelé, Emmanuel Porte, Hélène Roche, Marco Vespa and Arnaud Zucker.
Why put their behavior in time and space?
Edited by Eric Baratay
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Introduction. Why think about time and space?
part one — Behavioral flexibility: from spatial acceptance to temporal interest
1. The spatial difference: an old idea made obvious
Geographical variation of species in Greek zoology
Thinking about behavioral variation at the individual, group and species levels
Fabienne Delfour and Raphael Chalmeau
2. From millennial permanence to brutal disruption
Fortunes and misfortunes of Apis mellifera adami Ruttner (1975). A bee so Cretan
A cascading ethological upheaval. European and American animals in the Jesuit missions of Guarani (Paraguay, XVIIIe century)
part two — Temporal flexibility at several levels: differences between generations
1. Get rid of the behaviors of a period
From posture to behavior: dogs on Greek funerary stelae (Ve– IVe century BC)
Thierry Bedossa, Christophe Chandezon and Sarah Jeannin
2. Compare from one period to another
Behavioral variations and anthropozoological communities in Greco-Roman Antiquity?: the case of the so-called “Maltese” dog
Sad stray dog. A unique social behavior in the cities of modern times (XVIIIe mid 19th centurye century)
Part Three — Group Adjustments of a Period
1. Change behavior based on location
Differentiation of social and individual learning according to ecological context and the social relations that result. The example of the pigeon Zenaida aurita of Barbados
Pigeons and Pigeons: Behavioral Changes Caused by Circumstances Show Potential
2. The Anthropocene example: change over time to adapt to space
Behavioral flexibility in the face of Anthropocene disturbances. What the spatial teaches us about the temporal
Nelly Menard, Elisa Neves and Pascaline Le Gouar
“Let’s live happily, live hidden!” The adaptations of European beavers (Castor fiber) to the anthropization of their world
When the field fox becomes a city fox (Europe, XX -XXIe century)
part four — Changes in individuals in front of life
1. Travel and self-adaptation
Sailor monkeys of sailing ships in the 18th centurye and XIXe centuries. On the way to the first focal points in ethology
Clotilde Boitard and Marie Pelé
From the United States to France, three stories of today’s mustangs to think about yesterday’s
Life itineraries of four parrots
2. There is no eco-ethology without space and time
When birds move from “natural sciences” to “history-geo”
Conclusion. Time found, writing returned